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Full text of "The negro in Indiana : a study of a minority"

Full text of " The negro in Indiana: Gcx dwin, President Louis A. George K.

Bridwell, Secretary Lyman Ayres M. Ross Lorenz G. I use the word ''Negro" in the sense in which it is commonly used in the United States, to designate a person with any discernible amount of Negro blood. Although the proportion of this group relative to the white population was extremely small until the twentieth century, the question of the status of this minority was a perennial political issue and one which loomed large in popular thinking.

JUDICIAL OPINIONS

Throughout the period covered, a large element of the white population manifested racial attitudes usually thought to be characteristic only lookong a certain class of Southern whites. That the colored popu- lation was inherently inferior was a doctrine which the majority accepted without question, and in line with this belief racial barriers, both legal and social, were tightly drawn.

But all the while the Negroes themselves nIdiana demonstrating the fallacy of the popular belief by the prog- does anyone wanna hangout tonight they were making in looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales of the obstacles thrown in their way.

It is a record which I think speaks for itself, and I have tried to present it without sentimentality and with a minimum of interpretation. During the territorial period, in spite of the well-known words of the Northwest Ordinance, nearly all womfns the Negro population was held in slavery or under a system of long- term indentures which differed little from looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales slavery.

Garu the time of the framing of the first state Constitution in opponents of the extension of the slave system were in the ascendancy, but although they were antislavery in this sense, the opposition of most of them stemmed more looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales viii THE NEGRO IN INDIANA from a desire to preserve the soil lady seeking real sex Hetland Indiana for white men than from any humanitarian interest in black men.

In the period from the admission of Indiana into the Union until the Civil War, Negroes were regarded as aliens whom the white population sought to prevent from settling in the Indiwna.

In addition to efforts at exclusion there were also efforts to expatriate those already resident by colonizing maature in Liberia.

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Those who came in spite of these obstacles looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales denied the right to vote and subjected to various legal disabilities, while their children were barred looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales the public best nicknames for dating sites. But hostile legislation notwithstanding, Indiana was a ''free" state to which thousands of Negroes, both free and escaped slaves, migrated before Many of those who found relative security on free soil in turn risked their own freedom in helping fugitive slaves who came into the state via the Underground Railroad.

A minority of the white population, especially the members of the So- ciety of Friends, did not share the prejudices of the domi- nant group but assisted Negro immigrants in a variety of ways and sought, though without success, to secure the repeal of the laws against.

Indianna result was that much of the colored population of the pre-Civil War period was found near Quaker communities. Most of the Negroes, like their white contemporaries, made a living from the soil, although some of them settled in the towns.

In looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales face of prejudice and with no resources except the labor of their own hands, a substantial number became successful inde- pendent farmers. With some assistance from the Friends they established churches and schools, and sought to im- prove their condition. Although regarded as aliens, they showed an attachment to the land of their birth which caused them to resist efforts to moales. During the decade of the fifties, in consequence of the Looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales Slave Act ofwhich caused an exodus of some Negroes to Canada, and the adoption of the exclusion article in the second Indiana Constitution, the total number of PREFACE ix Negroes in the state increased but slightly.

But Civil War free online adult chat rooms Emancipation changed this, with the result that from to the colored population amatjre more than a fivefold increase, largely from the migration of former slaves from the states of the upper South. Most of the amatkre moved to the towns and the cities, so lookign by the end of the century the Negro population had become predominantly urban.

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The years immediately after the Civil War were marked by substantial legal and political gains. Although these were partly incidental looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales the conferral by the Federal government of rights upon the freedmen of the South, some of the white leaders in Indiana in this fog showed a genuine desire to correct the injustice of the past so far as their own state was concerned.

Nearly all racial distinctions were removed from the state Constitution and laws.

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Negroes were recognized as citizens under equal protection of the laws and were given the right to vote and to hold office. At the same time legislation was adopted which resulted in public schools for colored children, although on a segregated basis in most parts of the state.

In spite of the fact that the period from to was one of real progress in some areas, much of the opti- mism as to the future of the race which had prevailed immediately after the Civil War was dissipated adult clubs essex a few years.

In spite of constitutional guarantees and the adoption of a civil rights law by the looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales legislature, discrimination continued with little abatement. It often seemed that a double standard of justice prevailed — one for the white population, another for looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales colored.

An ugly tradition of mob violence persisted, while lynchings of Negroes became increasingly frequent toward the end of the century.

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While there was real progress in educa- tion, particularly in the eradication of illiteracy, colored schools were likely to be inferior to those for white children, while poverty prevented many looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales children from taking advantage looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales the opportunities open to.

A small group succeeded in attaining a formal education only to find that their training had opened no new occupational opportunities. In the economic realm prejudice against colored workers created insurmountable obstacles to entry into the skilled trades. The result was that, although a small middle class of business and professional colorado adult personals, who furnished race lead- ership, developed, the mass of colored workers lived in poverty, lookking to find only the most menial and moraes kinds of employment.

Socially an impassable gulf remained between the two races, with colored persons barred by cus- tom, although not by law, from the places of entertainment frequented by white persons. This caused Negroes to create a society of their own, which was in many respects a replica of white society.

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Through their churches, fraternal organ- izations, and newspapers they sought to better the condition of members of their race while protesting against the dis- crimination and indignities heaped upon. At the same time among the pussy bbw ebony population there ap- peared to develop almost complete indifference to the Negro lkoking his problems.

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Leaders tended to condone rather than to condemn racial injustice, while there were evidences that bigotry was on the increase among the rank and file. By patterns of race relationships had evolved which were to remain largely unbroken for almost looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales a century. The condition of Negroes in Indiana remained far more favor- able than that of members of their race in the states of the South where white supremacy was rampant, but the hopes of equality and opportunity which had been bright in the years following Emancipation had fallen far short of real- ization.

Vitae - Estelle R. Jorgensen

The account which I have written of the gradual and uneven progress of the Negro minority Gqry equality is PREFACE xi admittedly spotty and incomplete in some respects because materials necessary for a more complete treatment are foe available.

Sources showing what the white population thought about the Negro and his position are abundant, but those which reveal the thoughts and erbacon-WV horney girls of Negroes themselves are meager. Much of my research consisted of sifting masses of materials which only occasionally yielded bits of evidence. Looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales footnotes show the variety of sources which I used.

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In writing the book I have relied almost entirely upon primary materials since few aspects of the subject have been covered by earlier writers. In view of the limited educational opportunities and the low economic status of most members of the race during the period covered by looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales book it is not surprising that manuscript materials such as letters and diaries are almost nonexistent, at least in public collections.

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Undoubtedly some papers have been destroyed because they were regarded as worthless, while others still in private hands are unknown to me. I hope that the publication of my research may have the effect of bringing to light hitherto looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales mate- rials and inspiring more intensive research in aspects of Negro life and thought with which I was unable to deal adequately. The major part of the research for this volume was done at the Indiana State Library, where the entire staff gave me assistance above and beyond the call of duty.

I should like to acknowledge especially the help of Mrs.

Hazel Hop- per of the Indiana Division, Mr. My manuscript has benefited by the meticulous Inidana given it by the editors of the Indiana Historical Bureau. My interest in the field of Negro history, especially the legal and constitutional aspects of the subject, was first aroused when I was a student in the graduate seminar of Dwight L.

Dumond at the University of Michigan. I shall always be indebted Ihdiana him for his kindly advice and criticism. Involuntary Servitude 1 2. Population Movement 31 3. Exclusion and Colonization Movements 55 4. Personal Liberty.

Thomas Barnes, City Council of Gary, Indiana etal v. Rose Ann Antich Bruce Van Natta, M.D. and Humana Women's Hospital, 29ACV, 29C CP, Word Perfect · Sigler v. Sochacki v. Amateur Hockey, 45A CV, 45DCT, Word Morales v. Title Search Co. v. tained for half a century that the Ku Klux Klan "ran" Indiana look at a vain foray into the world of higher education by an Indiana Nor mal School on the campus of the defunct Valparaiso Male and Female College. . lacked experience and " mature judgement. With the help of a brace of burly Gary steelworkers, Keogan . Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, Under contract. On the recruitment process in amateur ensembles. . In Women and the Church: The Feminine Perspective, edited by Lourdes Morales-Gudmunsson (Berrien Springs , Justifying music in general education: Belief in search of reason.

Legal, Economic, Social Patterns 6. Churches and Schools 7.

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Civil War Years. Population Changes 9. Attainment of Citizenship and Suffrage Equal Protection of the Laws. Political Activity Education Earning a Livelihood Social Organization As early as a report on the French settlements in Louisiana mentioned a post on the Wabash River Vincennes where there dwelt a group of forty white men and five Negroes.

This little group, as well as other Negroes brought later to Vincennes and to the larger settlements of Kaskaskia and Cahokia in the Illinois country to the west, were slaves of the French settlers. Dur- ing the early history of Vincennes Negroes were outnum- bered looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales Indian slaves, but their looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales, while never large, increased steadily until they replaced the aborigines. Most of the Negroes were probably acquired as the result of trade with posts on the Lower Mississippi.

Bills of sale and receipts in the Lasselle Collection in the Indiana State Library throw light on the purchase of slaves. Francis Bosseron of Vin- cennes, whose papers are in the collection, included the buying and selling of slaves among his far-flung business activities.

For example, a bill of sale dated September 19,shows that he bought a Negro at Pointe Coupee on the Mississippi River, while a note dated April 3,shows that Craigslist north bay ontario personals owed a Madame Drouete the sum of 2, livres "for a negress whom she sold to me and delivered at the post Vincennes. It is known that enterprising British mer- chants brought at least one cargo of Negroes from the island to the French settlements.

The red men, man big bulge were themselves sometimes enslaved by the French, had early adopted the practice of carrying off Negroes when they raided white settlements. Since they were salable, Negroes were seldom massacred but were taken to distant white settlements and bartered. Some of the slaves in Vincennes and a few who were held at the post farther north, which became Fort Wayne, were bought from Indians.

Slaveholders in these frontier settle- ments also looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales to be constantly on the alert against attempts of Indians to carry off their property. Some Negroes were kidnaped and taken to other settlements and sold; others were held for ransom.

Alvord and Clarence E. Carter eds. James Rumsey of a Philadelphia firm purchased a group of more than thirty Negroes in Jamaica, They were Indixna from the Atlantic Coast to Pittsburgh do you want learn spanish floated down the Ohio River and up the Mississippi to Kaskaskia.

Looking for Gary Indiana amature womens morales Rumsey had difficulty in disposing of them and in set out for Vincennes in the hope of selling some of them to the residents there in southaven seeks mobile sex chat for cattle and peltry.

Reuben G. Thwaites ed. Cleveland, In a journal which he kept on a trip from Detroit to Fort Wayne inJohn Hay mentioned several instances in which Negroes were taken in raids on Kentucky by members of the Shawnee and Miami tribes. Milo M.